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Lord Indra in Rigveda

It is necessary to trace the life of Indra through Vaisvamitra’s hymns for several reasons. First, seven of his ten hymns are dedicated to Indra. Second, about 1/4th of the 1026 hymns in Rigveda are believed to be dedicated to Indra. Third, Indra is considered to be the pre-eminent deity in Rigveda for these reasons. Finally, Vaisvamitra’s verses throw clear light on Indra’s life, work and godhood.

Historicity of Indra

There is some evidence of the historicity of Indra. The Hymns 7 and 8, read together with other hymns of Vaisvamitra suggest a story of a warlike, drink loving, wordly king, who turned pious suddenly.

Valour and fondness of liquor

At some time Indra was the king who ruled the earth, as it were. Hence line 2 of a verse reads:

इन्द्रः पञ्च क्षितीनाम्[1] (

Indra is the ruler of the five, and the earth, honour him (क्षितीनाम्). The five under question could be the five peoples (the four varnas with nishadas) or mankind. In the next verse, he is called the lord of the people (जनेभ्य,[2] 1.007.10).

Indra is frequently called the fortunate one (घना). There are many reasons for this title, as we shall see later. One verse explains:

यो रायोSवनिर्महान्त्सुपारः सुन्वतः सखा | तस्मा इन्द्राय गायत || (1.004.10)[3]

I appeal for Union! King of earth of mighty deeds which bind leading to prosperous issue, Friend of sacrificers; Therefore Indra’s good fortune, celebrate in a song.

According to this verse, Indra was King (रायः) of earth (अवनि) of mighty deeds (मह) which bind (अन्त्) leading to prosperous issue (सुपार).  What were these mighty deeds? His many epithets reveal them. Among these mighty deeds was definitely the hundred asvamedhas that he is known for (शतक्रतो, 1.004.8-9, also 1.005.8). He was possessed of strength in battle (वाजेषु, 1.004.8,9, 1.007.4) and heroism (वाजिनम्, He killed the wretched Vrittra (वृत्राणामभवः,[4] 1.004.8).

He seems to have done all this as a man, not as a god. This is seen by the fact that Sage Vaishvamitra calls him: शूरेभिरस्तृभिरिन्द्र, i.e., Hero (शूरः) as a man (भिर्) , invincible (अस्तृत = अस्तृ) as a man (भिर्), Indra (1.008.4).

Yet another verse reveals:

इन्द्र वाजेषु नोSव सहस्रप्रधनेषु च | उग्र उग्राभिरूतिभि || (1.007.4)[5]

Indra favoured war or was warlike (नोSव),  and sought many spoils (सहस्रप्रधनेषु) of war. Like Rudra (उग्र) he howled ferociously to spread protection and create fear (उग्र उग्राभिरूतिभि).

He was also fond of drink (अस्य पीत्वा, 1.004.8).  His fondness for drink is subject of many a wordplay.  It is also recorded in the first line of one hymn:

आ तू न इन्द्र कौशिक मन्दसानः सुतं पिब | ([6]

There was some contempt for the perpetual Indra, the Kaushika, as intoxicated, one who drink soma juice.

Indra is sometimes referred to as  न इन्द्र  with न meaning the same, i.e., abiding (in the post of Indra) (also 1.010.3, cited later). Kaushik is another epithet of Indra. This verse reveals that there was some contempt for Indra for being intoxicated and fond of drink.

The above qualities are not pious.

Indra was also caught in the coils of samsara:

एमेनं सृजता सुते मन्दिमिन्द्राय मन्दिने | ([7]

Ever since he thought of begetting (एमेनं सृजता), children were the joyful Indra’s good fortune, gladdening the king (सुते मन्दिमिन्द्राय मन्दिने). There is an intended pun here, because मन्दिने can also be interpreted as the intoxicated ruler.

What with children and drinking, Indra seemed to be caught up in the wheel of time, says the second line of the verse:

चक्रिं विश्वानि चक्रये ||  (

The doer or turner of the wheel (चक्रिं), the whole world gasped appeared to be reduced to (विश्वानि)[8] a mover on the wheel (चक्रये).[9]  The reference to wheel here is apparently to the wheel of time (काल चक्र) or samsara.

There may also have been women. As Vaisvamitra says of Indra in a lighter vein :

एवा ह्यस्य काम्या स्तोम उक्थं च शंस्या | ([10]

I am reporting some events in lighter vein:  (his) desires/women are praised (काम्या स्तोम), Life though bad is praiseworthy (उक्थं च शंस्या).


This being so, how was Indra elevated to godhood? The explanation too comes in a lighter vein (एवा हि ते):

एवा हि ते विभूतय ऊतया इन्द्र मावते |  सद्यश्चित्सन्ति दाशुषे || (1.008.9)[11]

The sage says humourously, that the mighty (विभूतय) favoured (ऊतया) Indra is like me (इन्द्र मावते), and explains: suddenly he regains consciousness, starts bestowing gifts (सद्यश्चित्सन्ति), and turns pious (दाशुषे). This shows that at a later stage in life, there was a metamorphosis in Indra. He had a change of heart and understanding, turned pious, and distributed his wealth.

That this is the correct understanding of the events is shown in another verse made in lighter vein:

एवा ह्यस्य काम्या स्तोम उक्थं च शंस्या | इन्द्राय सोमपीतये || (1.008.10)

The meaning of the first line has already been explained. To repeat, Indra’s desires/women were praised, his life though bad was praiseworthy. The second line: इन्द्राय सोमपीतये, is telling. This is a brilliant twist of phrase. It means directly that Indra’s good fortune was that he drank soma, playing on Indra’s fondness for drink . But सोमपीतये also means : As time drew to an end, he increased protection (finish time increase protection: सो-म-पी-तयः = सोमपीतये).[12] Thus, Indra’s good fortune was that he increased protection before his time on earth came to an end.

In yet another verse, Vaisvamitra refers to the events relating to the change of heart of Indra:

नव्यमायु प्र सू तिर कृधी सहस्रसामृषिम् || ([13]

Before starting on his new life (नव्यमायु प्र), (he) secretly made his intentions and appeased a thousand sages (सहस्रसामृषिम्), presumably seeking their blessings.

Piety and Yoga

On turning pious, Indra became adept at yoga. He is said to have kindled the fire of Union or Yoga, (इन्द्र इद्धयोः). The full verse is worth retelling:

इन्द्र इद्धयोः सचा संमिश्ल आ वचोयुजा | इन्द्रो वज्री हिरण्ययः || (1.007.2)[14]

Indra kindled union (yoga). (Made) available meditation, also associated instructions to adhere to; Indra’s thunderbolt is the golden yoga.

Indra seems to have spread the enthusiasm for yoga (इन्द्र इद्धयोः) among his people, popularised meditation and instructions to follow while meditating (संमिश्ल आ वचोयुजा). The second line confirms: Indra’s thunderbolt is that of the golden union or Yoga.

His was apparently a pioneering work at least among his people, earning him the epithet of bull. Vaisvamitra says: स नो वृषन्नमुं;[15] i.e., I bow to the God of war and Bull (1.007.6). The word वृषन् also means chief or the best of its class. But that the sage meant bull by वृषन् is confirmed in a later verse:

वृषा यूथेव वंसगः कृष्टीरियत्सोजसा | ईशानो  अप्रतिष्कुतः || (1.007.8)[16]

Bull of a herd as it were (is Indra), a bull ploughs produces and therefore there is energy; (Indra) Lord unrestrainable.

This verse uses two different words for bull, वृषा and वंसगः, so as to leave no doubt about the meaning intended. It also explains the epithet ‘bull’. He says Indra is bull of the herd as it were (वृषा यूथेव) , a bull ploughs and therefore there is energy (वंसगः कृष्टीरियत्सोजसा) . Clearly this implies the pioneering work done by Indra in the field of yoga. The same idea reflects in a later verse already discussed, where he says addressing himself “on the backbone as it were of Indra, you have acquired and established Union: शतक्रत उद्वंशमिव येमिरे,[17] (1.010.1).

Since Indra did such work in the material plane as well as the spiritual plane, Vaisvamitra is unable to hold back his admiration, and calls him the “Unrestrainable Lord (ईशानो  अप्रतिष्कुतः).[18]

Thus, after his metamorphosis, Indra turned to Union or Yoga, was an adept at meditation, and had a good knowledge of its techniques. The belief was that yoga eliminates weaknesses from the origin. Thus yoga destroys moral darkness.

Referring to the knowledge of Yoga: Vaisvamitra pleads for it saying:

नि येन मुष्टिहत्यया नि वृत्रा रुणधामहे |  त्वोतासो नि अर्वता ||  (1.008.2)[19]

As you killed with clenched fist in that manner; (make) darkness/Vritra fear, confer knowledge to rejoice; We invoke thee, hasten!

There is a play on imagery here. Since Vrittra is the demon that Indra killed apparently with a blow of the fist (मुष्टिहत्यया) and Vrittra also means moral darkness, he pleads for Indra to make in like manner, darkness to fear and confer knowledge to rejoice (वृत्रा रुणधामहे).


. . . आ वयं वज्रं घना ददीमहि  | जयेम सं युधि स्प्रुधः || (1.008.3)[20]

May we conquer this knowledge that fights desire (जयेम सं युधि स्प्रुधः), says the sage. He calls as a child (वयं वज्रं) on the Fortunate One (घना) to grant the wish for knowledge (ददीमहि).

Thus, Indra became an adept yogi, spread the knowledge of yoga which removes moral darkness, and later became the king of heaven.  These events dictated the choices posed by the Sage:

इतो वा सातिमीमहे दिवो वा पार्थिवादधि | इन्द्रं महो वा रजसः || (1.006.10[21])

Decide which is best :

Knowledge or rejoicing in winning property and perishing (इतो वा सातिमीमहे);

Heaven or earthly delight (दिवो वा पार्थिवादधि);

Is Indra – great or living in moral darkness (इन्द्रं महो वा रजसः).

Yoga also helps in conquering the spiritual world. In another verse, suggestive of this as well as the historicity of Indra, the sage Vaisvamitra says:

वयं शूरेभिरस्तृभिरिन्द्र त्वया युजा वयम् |  सासह्याम पृतन्यतः || (1.008.4)[22]

For us, Heroism attained as man, invincible as man, Indra (शूरेभिरस्तृभिरिन्द्र), your yoga is a powerful support (त्वया युजा वयम्);  in conquering battles on the other side (Or) conquering battles on other grounds (सासह्याम पृतन्यतः). The other side could refer to the other side of life, i.e. death. Alternatively the verse could mean that Indra who helped win battles as a man, his yoga is a powerful support in battles spiritual, which are on grounds different from his real life battles.


The sense of contemporaneity of Indra is heightened by the repeated references to him as a friend. Speaking of Indra, the sage says that he is offering praise (स्तोमवाहसः) to a friends’ good fortune (सखायः = सख-अय) (1.005.1). There are repeated references to his friendship: He flies to delight friends (पतयन्मन्दयत्सखम्)[23] (1.004.7). He is the friend of sacrificers (सुन्वतः सखा, 1.004.10). The sage calls for him to befriend (प्रावो, 1.004.8)[24]. In the seventh hymn, he is also called a friend (वृध), more specifically, the ‘always granting unwearied protection’ friend (सत्रादावन्नपावृधि,[25] 1.007.6).

Here, the sage indicates a special relationship by saying that Indra felt affection for the descendants of Gathin : इन्द्रमिद्गाथिनो[26] (1.007.1). Gathin was Visvamitra’s father, and a Kshatriya. So, it seems was Indra. Could there have been a personal relationship?

Indra’s Good Fortune

Indra is called घनो or घना, the Fortunate one (1.004.8, 1.008.3). The theme of his good fortune is oft repeated (इन्द्र ज्यैष्ठ्याय,[27] 1.005.6). It is to be celebrated in songs (इन्द्राय गायत,[28] 1.005.4) or praised (सखायः स्तोमवाहसः,[29] 1.005.1). Many explanations are given as why Indra is considered fortunate. Some we have noted.

His good fortune was that he turned pious before the end of his life: इन्द्राय सोमपीतये (1.008.10).

Another reason is that Indra was an exception to the damages of samsara and drinking. Thus:

इन्द्रेहि मत्स्यन्धसो विश्वेभिः सोमपर्वभिः | महाँ अभिष्टिरोजसा || ([30]

With the well known exception of Indra, intoxication ensnares one in darkness ! The world seems a delusion, festival of soma seems a delusion; The great are afflicted with sickness, superiority goes along with energy.

Vaisvamitra repeats elsewhere that  while intoxication with self improves concentration (मत्स्वा सुशिप्र),[31] intoxication deludes (मन्दिभिः[32], 1.009.3, op. cit.). Indra seems to have been an exception to this rule, hence his good fortune.


त्वं सुतस्य पीतये सद्यो वृद्धो अजायथाः | इन्द्र ज्यैष्ठ्याय सुक्रतो || (1.005.6)[33]

You beget children, (then) absorbed in Union, (but) you are not reborn a sage immediately as deserving. Indra had good fortune of precedence and was wise.

Thus, while it is not usual for one to be reborn immediately as a sage after drinking and engaging in samsara, Indra was fortunate to be an exception.

This verse gives another reason for Indra’s good fortune. First, he had precedence. That is to say he was among the first. The word ज्यैष्ठ्य used in this context also means the eldest. According to puranic lore, Indra was the eldest of the children of Aditi, and Visnu was the youngest. So the term could also refer to this relationship. In either case, he was fortunate to be so. The second reason was Indra’s wisdom. This presumably relates to his ability to give up his worldly pleasures in time and turn to piety.

Another reason for Indra’s good fortune is well known from puranic lore: his preceptor, Brahaspati.

इन्द्रो दीर्घाय चक्षस आ सूर्यं रोहयद्दिवि | वि गोभिरद्रिमैरयत् || (1.007.3)[34]

Indra’s long good fortune is due to his spiritual teacher/Brahaspati entirely (इन्द्रो दीर्घाय चक्षस आ); (just as) the day is due to the sun rising; (just as) a mass of clouds do not attempt to move away from the mountain. ‘चक्षस्’ which means spiritual teacher, is also an epithet for Brihaspati. He is responsible entirely for Indra’s good fortune, just as the day is because the sun rises. He keeps his good fortune glued just as clouds are to a mountain peak.

Finally, there is the support of Hari:

यस्य संस्थे न वृण्वते हरी समत्सु शत्रवः | तस्मा इन्द्राय गायत || (1.005.4) [35]

To abide unchanging (as Indra) gratifyingly pronounced by Visnu यस्य (संस्थे न वृण्वते हरी), the Supreme, Excellent, Destroyer, Protector, Auspicious (समत्सु शत्रवः); Therefore, Indra’s good fortune, celebrate in a song तस्मा इन्द्राय गायत).

Indra’s good fortune attracted detractors:

य एकश्चर्षणीनां वसूनामिरज्यति | ([36]

Who alone continues to be the Lord of the thunderbolt, honour (य एकश्चर्षणीनां), (people) are jealous of him called Vasu. Vaisvamitra curses the jealous in the next verse:

अस्माकमस्तु केवलः || ([37]

We wish unhappiness on the envious.

Benefits of Worship

Vaisvamitra then goes on to enumerate the advantages of worshipping Indra.

विद्मा हि त्वा वृषन्तंमं वाजेषु हवनश्रुतम् |  वृषन्तमस्य हूमह ऊतिं सहस्रसातमाम् ||  (1.010.10)[38]

Attention! (This) to gratify the most mighty, possessed of strength in battle is an invocation heard by revelation. The most mighty possesses abundant blessings and thousands of pleasures verily. This verse claimed specifically to be “an invocation was heard by revelation (हवनश्रुतम्)” (1.010.10).  In this he says, that the most mighty one possesses (वृषन्तमस्य), abundant blessings (हूमह ऊतिं),[39] that conveyed a thousand pleasures verily (सहस्रसातमाम्).[40]

Indra in this verse is not named directly but is called to as the most mighty (वृषन्तंमं) (a new epithet in the hymns) and as one possessed of strength in battle (वाजेषु) (familiar to us) to establish the connection with Indra (1.10.10).

Wealth and good fortune (नः सुभगाँ) await the worshipper. Those who have benefitted declare that worship accomplishes wonderful deeds (अरिवोचेयुर्दस्म)[41] and attracts Union (कृष्टंयः) (1.004.6).[42]  In another verse, he says: dedicate your wealth and breath to Indra and obtain Union (सातये)[43] (1.004.9). He also bestows Union (yoga) with meditation on Siva/Visnu (राये स पुरंध्याम्,[44] 1.005.3).

Recitation of Indra’s good fortune (उक्थमिन्द्राय),[45] loudly read (शंस्यं), elevates spirits (वर्धनं) and bestows heaven (पुरुनिष्षिधे).[46]  Indra bestows as suitable (शक्रो यथा),[47] offspring and desires (सुतेषु),[48] knowledge (णो)[49] and also grants resounding friendship with Vishnu (एष)( रारणत्सख्येषु च)[50] (1.010.5)

Calling Indra easily accessible and well born (सुविवृतं सुनिरजमिन्द्र),[51] he says that Indra grants your desires and even fame (त्वादातमिद्यशः).[52] Then lists the benefits that could accrue to cattleherders:  Cows, guarding (you or them) against sickness, increasing the flock, removing injuries (गवामप व्रजं वृधि कृणुष्व). Because of this benevolence of Indra he calls him: राधो अद्रिवः[53]; i.e. the beneficent and the one armed with thunderbolt (1.010.7).

Functions and Worship

Vaisvamitra says that Indra has come into light to make firm knowledge and power (एमाशुमाशवे),[54] supports protects yagna (भर यज्ञश्रियं), gladdens men (नृमादनम्) and flies to delight friends (पतयन्मन्दयत्सखम्)[55] (1.004.7). He is the friend of sacrificers (सुन्वतः सखा, 1.004.10). The sage calls upon him to befriend (प्रावो, 1.004.8)[56], He is the One possessed of strength in battle and heroism (वाजेषु वाजिनम्)[57](1.004.8-9). He is the controller of battles (वाजयामः[58], 1.004.9) Indra is described as powerful (बृहत्), purifying (मर्कः) (1.007.1). Indra spreads auspiciousness too around richly (इन्द्रं वो विश्वतस्परि,[59] 1.007.10). Indra apparently aids judgement after death. For it is said that his voice is heard conferring praise and burning the wicked (इन्द्रं वाणीरनूषत)[60] (1.007.1).

For these reasons Indra is to be worshipped. In 1.004.5, the sage advocates dedicating righteous behaviour as an offering to Indra:

उत ब्रुवन्तु नो निदो निरन्यतश्चिदारत | दधाना इन्द्र इद्दुवः || (1.004.5)[61]

And by calling oneself guardian (उत ब्रुवन्तु) (of one’s body), not censuring anyone (नो निदो), keeping aloof, attain to gentle intellect; Give this as an offering to Indra.

Vaishvamitra adds that one must dedicate one’s wealth and breath to Indra (धनानामिन्द्र,[62] 1.004.9). He must shout his love for Indra and beg for his protection (स्यामेदिन्द्रस्य शर्मणि,[63] 1.004.6); and celebrate Indra’s good fortune in a song (इन्द्राय गायत,[64] 1.004.10). He is described as One whom man praises to get knowledge (भिर्-अर्क्-इ-णः)[65] (1.007.1). This last attribute is not surprising, since Indra is described as गिर्वणः[66], i.e., he who rejoices in praise (1.005.7, 10).

Indra has power and is illuminated (त्वेता,[67] 1.005.1). He blesses you, bestows gifts and illuminates (शं ते सन्तु प्रचेतसे,[68] 1.005.7). He is the Lord of heaven, inner knowledge and self (पुरूणामीशानं)[69] (1.005.2). Praise the kindly disposed, granter of prosperity, protector, (अवीवृधन्त्वामुक्था,[70]) says the sage. These are not mere words, he is the protector who grants prosperity (वर्धन्तु नो गिरः)[71] (1.005.8).

He grants the sacrificial prayers of man together with wealth (गमद्वाजेभिरा स नः,[72] 1.005.3).

He acts against and brings to an end plots of enemies (अभिद्रुहन्तनूनामिन्द्र)[73], and is the lord who averts murder (ईशानो यवया वधम्)[74] (1.005.10). His strength is thousandfold (वाजमिन्द्रः सहस्रिणम्,[75] 1.005.9).

[1] Indra (इन्द्रः) five (peoples) (mankind) (पञ्च) earth (क्षिति) Lord (इनः) honour (अम्) (क्षिति-इनः-अम् = क्षितीनाम्).

[2] people king (जन-इभ्यः = जनेभ्य)

[3] यो रायोअवनिः मह अन्त् सुपारः सुन्वतः सखा | तस्मा इन्द्र अय गायत ||

Union! (यः = यो) King (रायः) earth (अवनि) mighty deeds (मह) to bind (अन्त्) leading to prosperous issue (सुपार) sacrificer of Soma (सुन्वतः) friend (सखा) | Therefore (तस्मात् = तस्मा) Indra (इन्द्र) good fortune (अयः) celebrate in a song (गै = गायत).

[4] Vrittra (वृत्र) wretched (अ्ण) attack (अम्) destruction (अभवः) (वृत्र-अण-अम्-अभवः=वृत्राणामभवः)

[5] इन्द्र वाजः इषु नो अव सहस्र प्रधन-इषु च | उग्र उग्र अभिर् ऊति भि ||

Indra (इन्द्र) battle (वाजः) one possessed of strength (इषः) war (नः) favour (अवः) great number (सहस्र) spoils (प्रधन) seeking (इष् = इषु) also (च) | (As) Rudra (उग्र) ferocious (उग्र) howl towards (अभिर् = अभिरु) protection (ऊति) fear (भी = भिः) ||

[6] Somewhat  (आ) contempt (तू) same (न) Indra (इन्द्र) Kowshik (कौशिक) intoxicated (मन्दसानः) soma juice (सुतं) what drinks (पिब)

[7] नं सृजता सुते मन्दिम् इन्द्र अय मन्द् इनः |

Ever (आ) since (ई) that (एन)! To procreate (सृज् = सृजता) children (सुत = सुते) joyful (मन्दिम्) Indra (इन्द्र) good fortune (अय) intoxicated/gladdening (मन्द्) king (इनः = इने)

[8] the whole world (विश्व) gasp (अन्) to be reduced to (इ)

[9] wheel of Time (चक्र) mover (यः = ये

[10] Merely (एवा) to gratify (हि) happen (अस्य)(हि-अस्य = ह्यस्य) desire (काम्या) praise (स्तोम) life (उक्थं) bad (च) praiseworthy (शंस्य = शंस्या)

[11] Merely (एवा) to gratify (हि) you (ते) mighty (विभूतय) favoured (ऊतय) Indra (इन्द्र) like me (मावत् = मावते) | Suddenly (सद्यस् = सद्यश्) regain consciousness (चित्) bestowing gifts (सन्त्य = सन्ति)(सद्यस्-चित्-सन्ति = सद्यश्चित्सन्ति) pious (दाशुषे).

[12] That this is a correct interpretation of the term is confirmed by verse 1.002.3, which begins with : प्रपृञ्चती धेना जिगाति दाशुषे,  i.e., before getting caught in the swiftly moving river (of time), seek emancipation, and it ends: उरूची सोमपीतये,  i.e., as earthly time finishes, one must increase protection.

[13] नव्यम्-आयु प्र सू तिर कृधी सहस्र साम् ऋषिम् ||

New (नव्यम्) life (आयु)(नव्यम्-आयु = नव्यमायु) before (प्र) bringing forth (सू) secretly (तिर) make (कृ) intention  (धी) thousand (सहस्र) to appease (साम्) sages (ऋषिम्)(सहस्र-साम्-ऋषिम् = सहस्रसामृषिम् )

[14] इन्द्र इद्धयोः सचा संमिश्ल आ वचोयुजा | इन्द्रो वज्री हिरण्ययः ||

Indra (इन्द्र) kindled (इद्ध) union (यः = योः) at hand (सचा) meditation (सं) associated (मिश्ल = मिश्र) (सं-मिश्ल = संमिश्ल) also (आ) counsel  (वचस् = वचो) adhere to (युज् = युजा) | Indra’s  (इन्द्रो) thunderbolt (वज्रिन् = वज्री) golden (हिरण्य) union (यः) ||

[15] God (स) war (नः) bull (वृषन्) bow down! (नम्-उम् )

[16] वृषा यूथइव वंसगः कृष्ट – ईर् – इयत् – ओजसा | ईशानो  अप्रतिष्कुतः ||

Bull (वृषा = वृषन्) herd (यूथ) as it were (इव) bull (वंसगः) ploughed (कृष्ट) produce (ईर्) therefore (इयत्) energy (ओजस् = ओजसा) (कृष्ट-ईर्-इयत्-ओजस्) | Lord (ईशानः = ईशानो) unrestrainable (अप्रतिष्कुतः) ||

[17] performer of hundred sacrifices (Indra) (शतक्रतु = शतक्रत) on (उद्) backbone (वंशम्) as it were (इव)) Union (यः = ये) establish (मि) having acquired (रः = रे)

[18] The title ईशानो  अप्रतिष्कुतः, could also mean one who has mastered fear, since a couple of verse earlier, he confesses that “our fear is unrestrainable : Our (अस्म = अस्मद्) fear (भ्यम् = भ्यस्) unrestrainable (अप्रतिष्कुतः) (अस्म-भ्यम्-अप्रतिष्कुत = अस्मभ्यमप्रतिष्कुतः)” using the same word   अप्रतिष्कुतः.

[19] नि येन मुष्टिहतिअया नि वृत्रा रु – ण – धा – महे |  त्व – ओत – असो नि अर्वता ||

Affirmation) (नि) as (येन) clenched fist (मुष्टि) killing (हति) in this manner (अया) ( (affirmation) (नि) darkness/Vritra (वृत्रः = वृत्रा) fear (रु) knowledge (णः) confer (धा) to rejoice (महे) | Thou (त्व) invoked (ओत) to be! (अस् = असो) (affirmation ) (नि) hastening (अर्वत् = अर्वता)

[20] . . . आ वयं वज्रं घना दद् ई – म – हि  | जय – इम सं युधि स्प्रुधः ||

also (आ) we (वयं) child (वज्रं) fortunate (घन = घना) give (दद्) wish (ई) knowledge (म) surely (हि | Conquering  this (जय-इम = जयेम) knowledge (सं) fighting (युधि) desire (स्प्रुध् = स्पृधः) ||

[21] इतो वा सातिमीमहे दिवो वा पार्थिवधि | इन्द्रं महो वा रजसः ||

Knowledge (इतम् = इतो) or (वा) winning of property/spoils (साति) to die (मी) to rejoice (महे)(सति-मी-महे = सातिमीमहे); Heaven (दिव् = दिवो) or (वा) earthly (पार्थिव) giving (द) delight (धि)(पार्थिव-द-धि = पार्थिवादधि) | Indra/master of-that which is free (इन्द्रं) great (महः = महो) or (वा) living in the darkness (रजसः)

[22] वयं शूर्ए – भिर् – अस्तृ – भिर् – इन्द्र त्वया युजा वयम् |  सासह्याम पृतन्यतः ||

We (वयं) heroism (शूर्) attained (ए) man (भिरु = भिर्) invincible (अस्तृत = अस्तृ) man (भिरु = भिर्) Indra (इन्द्र)(शूर्-ए-भिर्-अस्तृ-भिर्-इन्द्र = शूरेभिरस्तृभिरिन्द्र) your (त्वया) yoga (युज् = युजा) powerful support (व-यम्) | conquering (सासह्यस् = सासह्याम) battle (पृत्) on the other side/on other grounds (अन्यतः)(पृत्-अन्यतः = पृतन्यतः)

[23] Fly to  (पतयन्) delighting (मन्दयत्) friends (सखम्) (पतयन्-मन्दयत्-सखम् = पतयन्मन्दयत्सखम्)

[24] प्राव्-ओ = प्रावो

[25] always granting (सत्रादावन्) unwearied (न) protection (पा) friend (वृध = वृधि)(सत्रादावन्-न-पा-वृध = सत्रादावन्नपावृधि)

[26]Indra (इन्द्र) feel affection (मिद्) Visvamitra’s descendants! (गाथिन्-ओ = गाथिनो) (इन्द्र-मिद्-गाथिन्-ओ = इन्द्रमिद्गाथिनो)

[27] Indra (इन्द्र) precedence good fortune (ज्यैष्ठ्य-अय = ज्यैष्ठ्याय)

[28] Indra good fortune (इन्द्र-अय = इन्द्राय) celebrate in a song (गै = गायत)

[29] Friends good fortune (सख-अयः) offering praise (स्तोमवाहस्).

[30] इन्द्र – आ – हि मद् – सि – अन्धसो विश्वभिः सोमपर्वभिः | मह – अम् अभिष्ट् – ईर् – ओजसा ||

Indra (इन्द्र) except (आ) as is well known (हि) to be intoxicated (मद्) ensnares (सि) darkness! (अन्धस्-ओ = अन्धसो) world (विश्व) delusion (भः = भिः) festival of soma (सोम-पर्व) delusion (भः = भिः) | Great (मह) afflict with sickness (अम्) superiority (अभिष्ट्) to go (इर्) energy (ओजस् = ओजसा)

[31] Delight in (मद्) one’s own self (स्वः = स्वा) (मद्-स्वः = मत्स्वा) to possess power (सु) to be attentive (शि) very (प्र)

[32] intoxicated (मन्द्) is reduced to (इ) delusions (भः = भि) (मन्द्-इ-भः = मन्दिभिः)

[33] त्वं सुतअस्य पीत – ये सद्यो वृद्धो अ – जा – यथाः | इन्द्र ज्यैष्ठ्य – अय सुक्रतो ||

You (त्वं) have offspring (सुत-अस् = सुतस्य) absorbed Union (पीत-यः = पीतये) immediately (सद्यस = सद्यो) sage (वृद्धः = वृद्धो) not (अ) born (जा) as deserving (यथा) (अ-जा-यथा = अजायथाः) | Indra (इन्द्र) precedence good fortune (ज्यैष्ठ्य-अय = ज्यैष्ठ्याय)  wise (सुक्रतु = सुक्रतो)

[34] इन्द्रो दीर्घअय चक्षस आ सूर्यं रोह – यद् – दिवि | वि गोभिर् – अद्रिम् – ईर् – अयत् ||

Indra’s (इन्द्रो) long (दीर्घ) good fortune (अय) spiritual teacher/Brahaspati (चक्षस् = चक्षस) entirely (आ) sun (सूर्यं) rising (रोह) wherefore (यद्) day (दिवि) | Away from (वि) mountain (गोभृत् = गोभिर्) mass of clouds (अद्रिम् = अद्रि) to go (ईर्) not attempting (अयत्)

[35] यस्य संस्थे न वृण् – वतेते हरी स – मत् – सु श – त्र – वः | तस्मा इन्द्र – अय गायत ||

To be (यस्य) abiding (संस्थ = संस्थे) same (न) to give pleasure spoken (वृण्-वत = वृणवते) Hari (हरि = हरी) together with (स) possess supremacy (मत्) excellent (सु) (स-मत्-सु = समत्सु) destroyer (शः) protecting (त्र) auspiciousness (वः) | therefore (तस्मा) Indra good fortune (इन्द्र-अय = इन्द्राय) celebrate in a song (गै = गायत)

[36] एकश्चर्षण् – इनः – अम्  वसू – नाम् – इरज्यति |

Who (य) alone (एक) continue to be (श्चर्) thunderbolt (षण्) Lord (इनः) honour (अम्) (  Vasu (वसु = वसू) by name (नाम् = नाम्ना) jealous (इरज्य = इरज्यति)

[37] अस्म – अकम् – अस्तु केवलः ||

We (अस्म) absence of happiness (अकम्) let it be (अस्तु)(अस्म-अकम्-अस्तु = अस्माकमस्तु) envious (केवलः)

[38] विद्मा हि त्वा वृषन्तंमं वाजेषु हवन – श्रुतम् |  वृषन्तम् – अस्य हू – मह ऊतिं सहस्र – सातम् – आम् ||

Attention (विद्मन् = विद्मा) to gratify (हि) most mighty (वृषन्तमं) battle (वाजः) possessed of strength (इषः = इषु) invocation (हवन) that which was heard by revelation (श्रुतम्| Most mighty possesses (वृषन्तम्-अस्य = वृषन्तमस्य) abundant ! (हू-मह) blessing (ऊतिं) thousand (सहस्र) pleasures (सातम्) verily (आम्).

[39] abundant         ! (हू-मह) blessing (ऊतिं)

[40] thousand (सहस्र) pleasures (सातम्) verily (आम्) (सहस्र-सातम्-आम् = सहस्रसातमाम्).

[41] obtaining (अरि) declare (वोचः) worship (यु) accomplishing worderful deeds (दस्म) (अरि-वोचः-यु-दस्म = अरिवोचेयुर्दस्म)

[42] attracted Union (कृष्ट-यः)

[43] Obtained union (सात-यः = सातये)

[44] bestowing Union (रा-यः = राये) together with (स) Visnu/Siva meditation (पुर-ध्या = पुरंध्याम्)

[45] Recitation (उक्थं) Indra (इन्द्र) good fortune (अय)(उक्थं-इन्द्र-अय = उक्थमिन्द्राय)

[46] heavan (पुरु) bestowing (निष्षिध्)(पुरु-निष्षिध् = पुरुनिष्षिधे)

[47] Indra (शक्रो) as wished/suitably (यथा)

[48] offspring (सुत) desire (एष)(सुत-एष = सुतेषु)

[49] knowledge (णः = णो)

[50] grants (रा) resounding (रणत्) friendship (सख्य)  Vishnu (एष)(रा-रणत्-सख्य-एष = रारणत्सख्येषु)  also (च)

[51] Easily opened (सुविवृतं) well born (सु-निर्-अजम्) Indra (इन्द्र)(सु-निर्-अजम्-इन्द्र = सुनिरजमिन्द्र)

[52] to you (त्वा) grant (दा) desire (तम्) even (इद्) fame (यशस् = यशः)(त्वा-दा-तम्-इद्-यशस् = त्वादातमिद्यशः)

[53] beneificient (राधस् = राधो) Armed with thunderbolt (अद्रिवत् = अद्रिवः)

[54] Come into (ए) light (मा) to make firm (शु) knowledge (मा) power (शवस् = शवे)(ए-मा-शु-मा-शवस् = एमाशुमाशवे)

[55] Fly to  (पतयन्) delighting (मन्दयत्) friends (सखम्) (पतयन्-मन्दयत्-सखम् = पतयन्मन्दयत्सखम्)

[56] प्राव्-ओ = प्रावो

[57] battle one possessed of strength (वाजः-इषः = वाजेषु) heroism (वाजिनम्).

[58] battle control (वाजः-यामः = वाजयामः)

[59] Indra honour (इन्द्र-अम् = इन्द्रं) auspiciousness (वः = वो) all around richly (विश्वतस्-परि = विश्वतस्परि)

[60] Indra (इन्द्रं) voice (वाणी) conferring (र) praise (नु) burn (उष) wicked man (त) (वाणी-र-नु-उष-त = वाणीरनूषत)

[61] उत ब्रुवअन्तु नो निदो निर – अन्यत् – अश्  – चित् – आरत | दध् – अना इन्द्र इद् – दुवस् ||

And (उत) calling oneself guardian (ब्रुव-अन्तु) not (नो) censuring (निद = निदो) free from another (निर्-अन्यत्) attain to (अश्) intellect (चित्) gentle (आरत) | Give thus (दध-अना = दधाना) Indra (इन्द्र) this an offering (इद्-दुवस् = इद्दुवः)

[62] Wealth (धन) breath (अनः) connect oneself with (अम्) Indra (इन्द्र) (धन-अनः-अम्-इन्द्र = धनानामिन्द्र)

[63] Cry aloud (स्यम् = स्य) to love (मेद्) Indra (इन्द्र) to be (अस् = अस्य) (स्य-मेद्-इन्द्र-अस्य = स्यामेदिन्द्रस्य) protection to beg (शर्मन्-ई = शर्मणि)

[64] Indra good fortune (इन्द्र-अयः = इन्द्राय) celebrate in a song (गै = गायत).

[65] बृहदिन्द्रमर्केभिरर्किणः  = Powerful (बृहत्) Indra (इन्द्र) purifying (मर्कः) man (भिर् = भिरु) praise (अर्क्) obtain (इ) knowledge (णः) (बृहत्-इन्द्र-मर्कः-भिर्-अर्क्-इ-णः)

[66] rejoices in praise (गिर्वणस् = गिर्वणः)

[67] having power shining (तु-एता = त्वेता)

[68] Blessing (शं) you (ते) bestowing gifts (सन्त्य = सन्तु) illuminates (प्रचेतन = प्रचेतसे).

[69] heaven (पुरु) knowledge (ण) self (अमः) Lord (ईशानः)(पुरु-ण-अमः-ईशानः = पुरूणामीशानं)

[70] kindly disposed (अवि = अवी) increaser (वृध) protector (अन्तु) verily (आम्) eulogise (उक्थ) (अवि-वृध-अन्तु-आम्-उक्थ = अवीवृधन्त्वामुक्था)

[71] granting prosperity (वर्ध) protector (अन्तु) (वर्ध-अन्तु = वर्धन्तु) not (नो) speech (गिरः).

[72] Granting (गम् = गमत्) sacrificial prayer (वाजः) of man (भिरु=भिरा) (गमत्-वाजः-भिरु = गमद्वाजेभिरा) together with (स) wealth  (नः)

[73] against (अभि) plotting as an enemy (द्रुह्) end (अन्त) therefore (नूनम् = नून) honour (अम्) Indra (इन्द्र) (अभि-द्रुह्-अन्त-नून-अम्-इन्द्र = अभिद्रुहन्तनूनामिन्द्र)

[74] Lord (ईशानः = ईशानो) who averts (यवय= यवया) murder (वधः= वधम्)

[75] strength Indra (वाजम्-इन्द्र = वाजमिन्द्र) is thousandfold (सहस्रिन् = सहस्रिणम्)